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In Exodus 6.2, 3 we find God saying to Moses, "I am JEHOVAH: and I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, as God Almighty, but by My name JEHOVAH I was not known (made known, R.V. marg.) to them." It was not that the name Jehovah was unknown to men in the days of Genesis, for as early as 235 years after the creation of Adam, at the time of the birth of Enosh, the grandson of Adam, it is said, "Then began men to call on the name of the LORD (Jehovah)" (Genesis 4.26). Indeed both Cain and Abel are said to have brought offerings unto Jehovah (Genesis 4.3-5). The meaning of the LORD'S words to Moses in the above verses in Exodus must be understood, that the covenant name in which God chose to reveal Himself to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and in which name He covenanted with them to be a God to them and to their seed after them, was God Almighty (El Shaddai). God Almighty is used six times in Genesis, but is only once used in Exodus, in the words of the LORD quoted above, and once in Numbers, and there it is used by Balaam (Numbers 24.4). It is nowhere else found in the writings of Moses, and Moses never uses it himself when speaking of God. The word Almighty (Shaddai) is found thirty one times in Job, but is found only twice in the Psalms.
The meaning of Almighty in the original Scriptures is the same as the meaning in English, signifying one who is most powerful. Some have suggested that there is some relation in the derivation of Shaddai, with that of Shad or Shod, which is the Hebrew word for the breast or teat of a mother or animal (as bulging), but I can find no proof of this. Gesenius gives no indication of this. God Almighty or the Lord Almighty, which can be applied to God alone, shows Him to be One whose power is infinite. Such is the God who "giveth power to the faint; and to him that hath no might He increaseth strength" (Isaiah 40.29). Such was He to the patriarchs in their earthly pilgrimage, men who were separate from the pagan peoples with whom they were surrounded. Of them it is said,
They went about from nation to nation,
From one kingdom to another people.
He suffered no man to do them wrong;
Yea, He reproved kings for their sakes;
Saying, Touch not Mine anointed ones
And do My prophets no harm."
The Almighty spread the wings of His all-powerful protection over and around His chosen ones. Such is the Lord Almighty to His chosen and separated people still, who are dependent on His almighty power to provide and to keep He cannot desert or fail those that trust Him (see 2 Corinthians 6 14 7 1)
In contrast to the meaning of Shaddai (Almighty) "Jehovah" shows One who does not change. Jehovah explains His name and character through Malachi, "For I the LORD (Jehovah) change not therefore ye 0 sons of Jacob are not consumed (Malachi 3.6). Jehovah, the eternal I AM, the One who was and is and shall be, for ever the same, entered into a covenant with Israel in the name Jehovah His covenant was changeless, as were also the promises He made to His people, but while He abode faithful to His word they broke His covenant they deserted from the promise which they made at Sinai for they said All that the LORD hath spoken we will do" (Exodus 19 8 24 7) ~ or long weary centuries He bore with the disobedience of His people rising up early and sending His servants to them with messages of entreaty and rebuke but they would not hear Then last of all, He sent His Son, who was also Jehovah the Son, and Him they arrested, and denied before the face of Pilate the Roman judge In such circumstances the question which the LORD asked through Isaiah might be repeated What could have been done more to My vineyard that I have not done in it? (Isaiah 5. 4) With great sadness Jehovah turned His face from the house of Israel when His Son left the temple, "Behold, your house is left unto you desolate. For I say unto you, Ye shall not see Me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord" (Matthew 23.38, 39). It was a closed door for Israel during the dispensation of grace which was to follow, yet in the Lord's words was a door of hope, and this was conditioned upon their saying, "Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord."
As we have elsewhere pointed out, the knowledge of God is bound up with a knowledge of His ways and His names. We have also indicated the meaning of some of the names by which God is called in the Scriptures, such as El, God, singular, the One who is strong. Eloah, God, singular, derived from "Ahlah, to worship, to adore, presents God as the supreme object of worship, the Adorable One." To give what is due to Him to any thing or person is idolatry. Elohim, God, plural (plural in Hebrew means more than two), is a name common to the Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. El Elyon, the Most High, is first used in connexion with Melchizedek; who was priest of God Most High (Genesis 14). This name shows God to be supreme, far above all that may be called gods. This name is used mostly, though not altogether, where men are outside of covenant relationship with God. El Shaddai. God Almighty, One who is most powerful, whose power is infinite. In this name God entered into a covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, who were weak, dependent men, who lived in the midst of pagan peoples, and needed the strength and protection of One who was infinite in power (Genesis 17). Jehovah, "He that always was, that always is, and that ever is to come," the Ever-existing One, and the One who abides eternally the same, with whom change is impossible. Such was the character in which He entered into covenant relationship with His people Israel, on the ground of their obedience to the terms of His covenant. Ehych Asher Ehyeh, I Am that I Am, "The force is, I continue to be, and will be, what I continue to be, and will be. Ehyeh, I Am, in force and meaning, 'I that ever will be.'" This is similar in meaning to the name Jehovah. Jah, this name is also expressive of eternal existence. It is frequently used in association with praise, as in Hallelujah, Praise ye Jah. Adon, Lord, singular, is thought to be derived from a word which means to make firm, as a foundation, but some think it is derived from a word which means to judge, to command, hence to be lord, owner, master. Adonahy, Lord, plural, Sovereign Lord, Master. "In this form used only as a divine title; different from Adonay, plural of Adon."
There are thirteen Jehovah titles.
Jehovah-Jireh, "Jehovah will see, or provide" (Genesis 22.14).
Jehovah-Ropheca, "Jehovah that healeth thee" (Exodus 15.26).
Jehovah-Nissi, "Jehovah my banner" (Exodus 17.15).
Jehovah-Mekaddiskem, "Jehovah that doth sanctify you" (Exodus 31.18).
Jehovah-Eloheenu, "Jehovah our God."
Jehovah-Elohay, "Jehovah my God."
Jehovah-Eloheka, "Jehovah thy God."
Jehovah-Shalom, "Jehovah send peace" (Judges 6.24).
Jehovah-Tsebahoth, "Jehovah of hosts" (1 Samuel 1.8).
Jehovah-Rohi, "Jehovah my Shepherd" (Psalm 23.1).
Jehovah-Heleyon, "Jehovah Most High" (Psalm 7.17).
Jehovah-Tsidkeenu, "Jehovah our righteousness" (Jeremiah 23. 6).
Jehovah-Shahmmah, "Jehovah is there" (Ezekiel 48.35).
The great statement of Moses in the law, which the Lord quoted in His reply to the Pharisees (Mark 12.29, 80), was, "Hear, 0 Israel: the LORD our God is one LORD: and thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might" (Deuteronomy 6.4, 5). LORD here is Jehovah, and God is Elohim, " Jehovah our Elohim is one Jehovah." Elohim as we have seen above is plural, and signifies the Trinity, God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit. It very properly arises in our mind how Elohim can be one Jehovah.
The Hebrew word for " one " is Echad. Its first use in the Scriptures is in Genesis 1.5, "And there was evening and there was morning, one day." The A.V. gives " the first day," but the R.V. is literally correct, " one day." Echad means to be united. It is derived from the Hebrew word Achad, which means to unite, or it may be that the numeral one (Echad) is derived from Achad. Whichever is the correct view, the idea of a composite one is contained in the word Echad. This is seen in the fact that the evening and morning unitedly made one day. This is also so in connexion with two persons joined in marriage, they become one flesh (Genesis 2.28, 24). There are other instances in the Old Testament where more than one object united together make one.